IMMUNZ – Nourishing Daily Immune Defense
IMMUNZ advanced immune support supplements are a simple and convenient way to nourish your body and support your healthy immune system response. This formula is comprised of 100 percent clinically researched ingredients. Each one has shown to provide benefits through reputable scientific study published in peer-reviewed medical journals.
The complete IMMUNZ formula provides your body with a powerful combination of ingredients. Every one of those substances has undergone strict quality and purity tests. They have been meticulously balanced and carefully combined into this unique capsule. The active ingredients include Vitamin C, Quercetin Dihydrate, and European Elder. The potent antioxidants, flavonoids and phytochemicals are top options among nutritionists and other nutrition experts.
Start using IMMUNZ every day as a part of your complete immune system support strategy including proper nutrition and physical activity as well as other steps such as stress control and making a priority of sleep.
IMMUNZ capsules are manufactured in a United States facility by Intechra Health Inc. In this way, you can feel confident that the product you choose was manufactured using the highest quality and safety standards in the USA.
The Science Behind the IMMUNZ Formula
Vitamin C – also know as ascorbic acid – is an essential micronutrient and a potent antioxidant. It is a cofactor for a biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzyme family. This nutrient is well known and recognized for its contributions to immune defense in a number of ways. These mainly occur due to its support of various cellular functions in both the innate immune system and the adaptive one.
Vitamin C provides support to the epithelial barrier function against pathogens (1), that is, organisms that cause disease. This micronutrient also promotes the skin’s oxidant scavenging activity so that it provides potential protection against environmental oxidative stress, too. Its microbial killing functions come from its accumulation in phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils. That can boost chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and the generation of reactive oxygen species. It is also a required component for apoptosis and for spent neutrophil clearing from infection sites by macrophages. In this way, vitamin C can reduce necrosis/NETosis and potential tissue damage.
When someone is deficient in vitamin C, their immunity can be impaired, and they can suffer a higher risk of infections. Since this micronutrient is heavily used in battling infections due to raised inflammation and metabolic requirements, infection can also deplete vitamin C levels. Supplementation has been shown in studies (1) to be helpful in both he prevention and treatment of respiratory and systemic infections.
A 2013 study published in The Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews (2) illustrated the potential value of Vitamin C on treating colds. It indicated that supplementation of this micronutrient could be recommended due to “the consistent effect of vitamin C on the duration and severity of colds in the regular supplementation studies,” as well as the fact that it safe and inexpensive to use. The researchers advised that common cold patients could test it on an individual basis to see if it benefited them in overcoming their colds.
A study published in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology in 2014 (3) showed that ascorbic acid (vitamin C) may “enhance T cell proliferation and differentiation”. T cells are a core part of the immune system, which attack specific antigens (a molecule on a pathogen that allows the T cell to identify it), so it can attack and destroy it before it can cause an infection or try to overcome an infection that has already occurred. This research showed that ascorbic acid plays a “pivotal role” in human in vitro T cell development.
Researchers in a 2005 study published in the Clinical Nutrition (4) journal found that when patients were supplemented arginine, Vitamin C and zinc, it “significantly improved the rate of pressure ulcer healing.”
Back in 1974, in a study published in The Lancet (5), a double-blind controlled trial was conducted on the use of large doses of ascorbic acid on healing pressure sores. The group that received the vitamin C saw considerably improved healing when compared to the placebo group. The researchers concluded that “These findings are statistically significant…and suggest that ascorbic acid may accelerate the healing of pressure-sores.”
Research conducted in 2004, published in The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (6) showed that “ascorbic acid plays major role in pulmonary antioxidant defense.” It explained that a proper amount of vitamin C is needed for the lungs to be able to keep up their normal metabolic processes. This research was conducted on patients with pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). What they found was that in patients with those infections, ascorbic acid levels were low. Upon further study, they determined that pneumonia patients oxidized vitamin C more quickly, causing their body’s supply to drop more rapidly than that of a healthy person.
As a further examination of vitamin C and pneumonia, a 2013 paper published in The Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews. (7) showed that this micronutrient could be used as a tool to help prevent pneumonia and that this purpose should continue to be studied. Supplementation to help protect people at risk of this respiratory illness was recommended, particularly in cases where intake of vitamin C was low in the diet.
The International Journal of Biomedical Science published a study in 2008 (8) that demonstrated the importance of antioxidants when properly used in the body. Since vitamin C is an antioxidant, this helped to understand precisely how it functions to benefit an individual’s wellness and support the immune system. Antioxidants counteract the impact of free radicals and oxidants produced naturally within the body through normal cell metabolism, as well as from external sources (such as various types of air, water and other pollutions, cigarette smoke, medications and radiations). When the body is overloaded with free radicals that have not been destroyed gradually over time, they can accumulate, leading to what is known as oxidative stress. This process can lead to a spectrum of chronic and degenerative illnesses such as premature aging, cataract, autoimmune disorders, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidants are what counteract oxidative stress. These are produced naturally within the body or are gained through food and supplementation.
The Journal of the American College of Nutrition published research in 2003 (9), evaluating the impact of supplementing vitamin C over the long term, while comparing to dietary consumption of the micronutrient. What they found was that “five-year vitamin C supplementation induces a remarkable increase in serum vitamin C concentration.” Therefore, unlike supplementation of certain other nutrients which are not effectively absorbed in the form of pills or liquids, taking vitamin C supplements has been shown consistency in being absorbed and improving levels in the bloodstream.
In a 1997 study published in the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism (10) involved supplementing vitamin C in three groups, one was the control group without supplementation, one group had supplementation for a single day, and one group was supplemented daily for two weeks. The purpose was to study the impact on free radicals on the subjects following exercise, as exercise causes the body to increase its antioxidant/free radical levels. The researchers concluded that “exercise-induced oxidative stress was highest when subjects did not supplement with vitamin C compared to either 1 day or 2 weeks of vitamin C supplementation.”
This showed, therefore, that supplementation has a measurable impact on the body’s oxidative stress. As mentioned earlier, it is that stress that raises the body’s risk of a range of illnesses. Therefore, it can be said that supplementation of this micronutrient can help to provide the immune system with added support.
In 2004, research published in The Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews (11) concluded that the supplementation of vitamin C could be justified in helping to benefit them against the common cold when they have been exposed to brief intense physical exercise and/or cold environments. It also concluded that “the consistent and statistically significant small benefits on duration [of the common cold] and severity for those using regular vitamin C prophylaxis indicates that vitamin C plays some role in respiratory defence mechanisms.”
(1) Carr, Anitra C., and Silvia Maggini. “Vitamin C and Immune Function”. Nutrients. Nov 3, 2017. Volume 9, Issue 11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5707683/
(2) Hemilä, Harri and Elizabeth Chalker. “Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold”. The Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews. Jan 2013. Volume 31, Issue 1. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23440782/
(3) Huijskens, Mirelle J.A.J., Mateusz Walczak, Nicole Koller, Jacob J Briedé, Birgit L M G Senden-Gijsbers, Melanie C Schnijderberg, Gerard M J Bos and Wilfred T V Germeraad. “Technical advance: ascorbic acid induces development of double-positive T cells from human hematopoietic stem cells in the absence of stromal cells”. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. December 2014. Volume 96, Issue 6. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25157026/
(4) Desneves, Katherine J., Bree E Todorovic, Ann Cassar and Timothy C Crowe. “Treatment with supplementary arginine, vitamin C and zinc in patients with pressure ulcers: a randomised controlled trial”. Clinical Nutrition. December 2005. Volume 24, Issue 6. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16297506/
(5) Taylor, T.V., S. Rimmer, B. Day, J. Butcher and I.W. Dymock. “Ascorbic Acid Supplementation in the Treatment of Pressure-Sores”. The Lancet. September 1974. Volume 304, Issue 7880. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(74)91874-1/fulltext
(6) Bakaev, V.V. and A P Duntau. “Ascorbic acid in blood serum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and pneumonia”. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. February 2004. Volume 8, Issue 2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15139458/
(7)Hemilä, Harri and Pekka Louhiala. “Vitamin C for preventing and treating pneumonia”. The Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews. August 2013. https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD005532.pub3/full
(8) Pham-Huy, Lien Ai and Hua He and Chuong Pham-Huy. “Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health”. International Journal of Biomedical Science. June 2008. Volume 4, Issue 2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23675073/
(9) Kim, Mi Kyung, Shizuka Sasazuki, Satoshi Sasaki, Shunji Okubo, Masato Hayashi and Shoichiro Tsugane. “Effect of five-year supplementation of vitamin C on serum vitamin C concentration and consumption of vegetables and fruits in middle-aged Japanese: a randomized controlled trial”. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. June 2003. Volume 22, Issue 3. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12805247/
(10) Alessio, Helaine M., Allan H. Goldfarb and Guohua Cao. “Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress before and after Vitamin C Supplementation”. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. March 1997. Volume 7, Issue 1. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9063760/
(11) Douglas, R M., H Hemila, R D’Souza, E B Chalker and B Treacy. “Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold”. The Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews. Oct 2004. Volume 18, Issue 4. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15495002/
Quercetin dihydrate belongs to a subgroup of flavonoids, polyphenols, called flavonols. It is widely found in plant-based foods such as onions, as well as broccoli, and fruits like apples, grapes and berries. It can be found in certain herbs, tea, and in wine. It has long been considered an important supporter of immune system function and has been broadly studied to gain an understanding of that support.
Research, such as a 2016 study published in the Molecules (1) journal, has examined its benefits on the immune system, particularly through its antioxidant activity in “radical scavenging and anti-allergic properties characterized by stimulation of immune system, antiviral activity, inhibition of histamine release, decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines, leukotrienes creation, and suppresses interleukin IL-4 production.”
The conclusions in that study were lengthy. They found that in a world in which allergic disorders involving everything from skin conditions to food and respiratory allergies have been rapidly rising over the last thirty years, quercetin supplementation provides promising support among flavonoids. The researchers pointed to its anti-allergic mechanism of action through its inflammatory mediator and enzyme inhibition, which have been “extensively studied.” The researchers also pointed out that this substance is a human mast cell activation inhibitor by way of Ca2+ influx, histamine, leukotrienes and prostaglandins release. They pointed to the role quercetin plays in respiratory allergies and food allergies in particular, stating that this ingredient is in a “unique position” for the “treatment of allergic disorders and the possibility of using phytochemicals such as quercetin for an efficient cure.”
In another study published in 2016, this time in the Nutrients (2) journal, quercetin was shown to have a spectrum of benefits to support the immune system. These included “anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability.” It recommended more study to specifically understand the “mechanisms of action” to explain why quercetin is beneficial to immunity and inflammation. They recognized the challenge moving ahead as further examining the optimal benefits of this substance, particularly intake recommendations.
Research published in the European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology (3) in 2016 showed that a formula containing quercetin was helpful in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections among at-risk patients.
The Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology (4) published the results of a study in 2016 which examined the use of flavonoids, including quercetin, for therapeutic approaches such as inflammation control, which “may also prove to be crucial for an effective treatment regimen of the disease,” referring to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). It took a deeper look into the anti-inflammatory properties of this substance.
Inflammation is associated with a spectrum of diseases, illnesses and ailments. As the study indicates that this flavonol has beneficial anti-inflammatory properties, this may also suggest that it lends its support to the immune system in this way.
Another 2016 study published in Mediators of Inflammation (5) further examined the anti-inflammatory benefits of quercetin, particularly in respect to reducing the risk of disease and disorders. In this case, it examined the impact of quercetin on the inflammation suffered by abdominal obesity patients. That inflammation was related to insulin resistance and other metabolism disorders such as diabetes. The researchers concluded that this ingredient has a number of potential anti-inflammatory benefits, as well as anticarcinogenic (anti-cancer) applications. It was also found to be beneficial in platelet aggregation, lipid peroxidation, and capillary permeability.
A rat study conducted in 2016 and published in the Pharmaceutical Research journal (6) examined the safety and effectiveness of quercetin in its anti-edematous and antioxidant effects and investigated toxicity. What the researchers found was that the quercetin did indeed have properties that were anti-edematious and antioxidant, and that it did “not demonstrate toxic effects.” They concluded that “This indicates that it has a potential application in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.”
(1) Mlcek, Jiri, Tunde Jurikova, Sona Skrovankova and Jiri Sochor. “Quercetin and Its Anti-Allergic Immune Response”. Molecules. May 2016. Volume 21, Issue 5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6273625/
(2) Li, Yao, Jiaying Yao, Chunyan Han, Jiaxin Yang, Maria Tabassum Chaudhry, Shengnan Wang, Hongnan Liu and Yulong Yin. “Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity”. Nutrients. March 2016. Volume 8, Issue 3.
(3) Torella, M, F Del Deo, A Grimaldi, S A Iervolino, M Pezzella, C Tammaro, P Gallo, C Rappa, P De Franciscis and N Colacurci. “Efficacy of an orally administered combination of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, curcumin and quercetin for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women”. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. December 2016. Volume 207. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27838537/
(4) Basu, Anandita, Anindhya S Das, Munmi Majumder and Rupak Mukhopadhyay. “Antiatherogenic Roles of Dietary Flavonoids Chrysin, Quercetin, and Luteolin”. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. July 2016. Volume 68, Issue 1. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27385185/
(5) Chen, Shuang, Hongmei Jiang, Xiaosong Wu and Jun Fang. “Therapeutic Effects of Quercetin on Inflammation, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes”. Mediators of Inflammation. November 2016. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28003714/
(6) Hädrich, Gabriela, Gustavo Richter Vaz, Michelle Maidana, Jadel Muller Kratz, Gecioni Loch-Neckel, Daniely Cornélio Favarin, Alexandre de Paula Rogerio, Flávio Manoel Rodrigues da Silva Jr, Ana Luiza Muccillo-Baisch and Cristiana Lima Dora. “Anti-inflammatory Effect and Toxicology Analysis of Oral Delivery Quercetin Nanosized Emulsion in Rats”. Pharmaceutical Research. April 2016. Volume 33, Issue 4. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26687116/
European Elder (fruit)
European elder, also known as European elderberry or Sambucus nigra, is a plant native to Europe, as well as northern Africa and western Asia. This deciduous tree now also grows in the United States. Its flowers and berries have been used to flavor food and in traditional medicine for a spectrum of benefits, particularly in terms of supporting the immune system to protect from disease and infection as well as speeding recovery when infection does occur. More recently, it has also undergone clinical study to better understand its benefits and safety. It is that research which was meticulously examined before including it in the IMMUNZ formula.
According to a 2007 report from the Purdue University College of Agriculture (1), the medicinal potential from European elder fruit comes from its antioxidants resulting from several phytochemicals. That paper cited a 2002 study published in The Journal of Nutrition (9) in which it showed that this species was the third highest in its antioxidant capacity when measured by way of the FRAP method. It was also shown in two other studies, both published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (10, 11), to be considerably higher in antioxidants than both cranberry and blueberry (two fruits well recognized for their high levels of antioxidants). Those studies used the ORAC technique to measure the levels.
Research published in the Nutrients (2) journal in 2016 concluded that “a significant effect of elderberry on cold duration and cold associated symptoms was detected.” The trial involved the participation of travelers who took it from 10 days before their departure until 4 to 5 days after arrival overseas. On average, they experienced a 2-day reduction in the duration of their cold and their symptoms were reduced. No adverse events were recorded. The researchers concluded that more clinical research using elderberry preparations would be worthwhile to further understand the “beneficial health implications.”
A 2015 study published in the Journal of Functional Food (3) examined the nutritional and medicinal properties of European elder (Sambucus nigra) due to its polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonols, phenolic acids, and proanthcyanidins, in addition to terpenes and lectins. The results pointed to antioxidant protective potential and encouraged more studies in order to more precisely understand the active compounds in elderberry to ensure that the benefits “established in respiratory ailments, colds, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity” can be enjoyed while understanding interactions with other compounds that could affect the elderberry’s activity.
The European Cytokine Network (4) published an analysis in 2001 which examined standardized European elder extract in the forms they are used as “natural remedies with antiviral properties, especially against different trains of the influenza virus.” What it showed was that the extract “was shown to be effective in vitro against 10 strains of influenza virus in double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. When compared to the placebo group, flu symptom duration was reduced by 3 to 4 days. Moreover, convalescent phase serum measured a “higher antibody level to influenza virus” in the group that took the extract compared to those in the placebo group.
The researchers concluded that “in addition to its antiviral properties,” European elder fruit extract and formulations that contain it “activate the healthy immune system by increasing inflammatory cytokine production.” The researchers also stated that there was the potential that this ingredient could “therefore be beneficial to the immune system activation and in the inflammatory process in healthy individuals or in patients with various diseases.” Further study was encouraged. Furthermore, the researchers also speculated that the extract might have an “immunoprotective or immunostimulatory effect when administered to cancer or AIDS patients, in conjunction with chemotherapeutic or other treatments.” Again, in that case, further study would be required.
In 2004, a study published in The Journal of International Medical Research (5) examined the impact of elderberry on sixty patients aged 18 to 54 years old in terms of influenza A and B treatment. These patients were all suffering from symptoms of the illness for 48 hours or less when enrolled in this Norway trial, which was randomized, double-blind, and placebo controlled. The patients received either 15 millilitres of elderberry syrup or a placebo syrup, depending on their assigned group. They took their syrup four times per day for five days and uses a visual analogue scale to record their symptoms.
The results of this study showed that patients who took the elderberry extract experienced relief from symptoms 4 days earlier than those using the placebo syrup. The researchers concluded that “Elderberry extract seems to offer an efficient, safe and cost-effective treatment for influenza,” encouraging further study.
Research published in 2017 in the Phytotherapy Research (6) journal conducted an evaluation of the current scientific research regarding the use of elderberry extract for the purpose of antiviral benefits, particularly as an influenza treatment. The researchers also examined safety and health impacts of using this ingredient as a supplement. The researchers underscored that the United States Food and Drug Administration has approved of elder’s safety as “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS). As studies have been widely conducted but in many different ways on different groups, they encouraged more research before firm conclusions could be made.
The Complimentary Therapies in Medicine (7) journal published a meta-analysis in 2019 that looked into Sambucus nigra as a cold and flu symptom treatment. It sought to quantify the effects provided from supplementing European elder and to evaluate moderators such as the underlying pathology itself and vaccination status. The researchers concluded that “Supplementation with elderberry was found to substantially reduce upper respiratory symptoms.” They went on to recommend that “These findings present an alternative to antibiotic misuse for upper respiratory symptoms due to viral infections, and a potentially safer alternative to prescription drugs for routine cases of the common cold and influenza.”
In 2020, the Journal of General Internal Medicine published a study on elderberry extract to determine whether it could reduce the duration and severity of influenza. The research design was an FDA-approved, investigator-initiated, Investigational New Drug, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. It ran from January 2018 through April 2019 and was conducted in two suburban and one urban emergency rooms in the Midwestern Health System. The research findings were inconsistent with previous studies, so the researchers determined that this study’s outcomes “demonstrate the need for further studies.”
(1) Janick, J. and A. Whipkey. “Elderberry as a Medicinal Plant”. Purdue University College of Agriculture. 2007. https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ncnu07/pdfs/charlebois284-292.pdf
(2) Tiralongo, Evelin, Shirley S. Wee and Rodney A. Lea. “Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial”. Nutrients. April 2016. Volume 8, Issue 4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4848651/
(3) Sidor, Andrzej and Anna Gramza-Michałowska. “Advanced research on the antioxidant and health benefit of elderberry (Sambucus nigra) in food – a review”. Journal of Functional Food. Octobers 2015. Volume 18, Part B. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1756464614002400?via%3Dihub
(4) Barak, V, T Halperin and I Kalickman. “The effect of Sambucol, a black elderberry-based, natural product, on the production of human cytokines: I. Inflammatory cytokines”. European Cytokine Network. April-June 2001. Volume 12, Issue 2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11399518/
(5) Zakay-Rones, Z, E Thom, T Wollan and J Wadstein. “Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections”. The Journal of International Medical Research. March-April 2004. Volume 32, Issue 2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15080016/
(6) Porter, Randall S. and Robert F Bode. “A Review of the Antiviral Properties of Black Elder (Sambucus nigra L.) Products”. Phytotherapy Research. April 2017. Volume 31, Issue 4.
(7) Hawkins, Jessie, Colby Baker, Lindsey Cherry and Elizabeth Dunne. “Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) supplementation effectively treats upper respiratory symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials”. Complimentary Therapies in Medicine. February 2019. Volume 42. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30670267/
(8) Macknin MD, Michael, Kathy Wolski MPH, Jeffrey Negrey MA and Sharon Mace MD. “Elderberry Extract Outpatient Influenza Treatment for Emergency Room Patients Ages 5 and Above: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.” Journal of General Internal Medicine. Sept 2020. Volume 35. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11606-020-06170-w
(9) Halvorsen, B.L., K. Holte, M.C.W. Myhrstad, I. Barikmo, E. Hvattum, S.F. Remberg, A.-B. Wold, K. Haffner, H. Baugerod, L.F. Andersen, J.O. Moskaug, D.R.J. Jacobs, and R. Blomhoff. “A systematic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plants”. The Journal of Nutrition. Volume 132. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11880572/
(10) Wu, X., L. Gu, R.L. Prior, and S. McKay. “Characterization of anthocyanins and proanthocyanins in some cultivars of Ribes, Aronia, and Sambucus and their antioxidant capacity”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. December 2004. Volume 52. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jf0486850
(11) Wu, X., G.R. Beecher, J.M. Holden, D.B. Haytowitz, S.E. Gebhardt, and R.L. Prior. “Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. June 2004. Volume 52. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15186133/