Caffeine anhydrous, a synthetic stimulant also known as 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, is a substance that can safely produce a number of highly beneficial effects, such as weight loss, in some of the most effective non-prescription diet pills, such as FENFAST 375, and PHENBLUE. This ingredient is known to be a strong fat burner and features intense appetite suppressant properties.
Scientific research* that has been performed on caffeine anhydrous has shown that it is not only safe to be used every day, but that it is also linked to a larger amount of weight loss than exercise and diet alone. Furthermore, it works as a strong fat burner and can help to reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.
Clinical** studies have also indicated that by using caffeine anhydrous regularly, in the right doses, obese patients are able to reduce their body fat levels and lose weight more effectively than those who did not. This ability was attributed to the substance’s promotion of thermogenesis, which helps to increase the metabolic rate and therefore burn calories and burn fat quickly.
In its promotion of easier weight loss research*** has shown that caffeine anhydrous is an effective ingredient for lowering an obese individual’s obesity risk and to help to prevent weight from building back on again once it has been lost.
Overall, the research**** that has shown that caffeine anhydrous helps with weight loss, waist circumference reduction, and a decrease in body mass helped to make caffeine anhydrous an ideal choice for safe and effective over the counter diet pills.
* Heckman MA, Weil J, Gonzalez de Mejia E. Journal of Food Science. “Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) in foods: a comprehensive review on consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters”. 2010 Apr;75(3):R77-87.
** Yoshida T, Sakane N, Umekawa T, Kondo M. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders : Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. “Relationship between basal metabolic rate, thermogenic response to caffeine, and body weight loss following combined low calorie and exercise treatment in obese women”. [1994, 18(5):345-350]
*** James A Greenberg, Carol N Boozer, and Allan Geliebter. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. “Coffee, diabetes, and weight control1,2”. October 2006 vol. 84 no. 4 682-693.
**** Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga, Manuela P.G.M. Lejeune, Eva M. R. Kovacs. Obesity Research. “Body Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Relation to Habitual Caffeine Intake and Green Tea Supplementation”. Volume 13, Issue 7, pages 1195–1204, July 2005.
Throughout the careful and lengthy development process for FENFAST 375 and APEX-TX5, it rapidly became evident that ß-phenylethylamine HCl should be one of the ingredients to be included within its proprietary formula. The benefits of this ingredient are highly complementary to the others in this non-prescription diet pill industry, and they are well known within the business for being safe and effective for weight loss purposes.
The use of ß-phenylethylamine HCl is known to provide an additional benefit to the various effects that were already being produced by the pill. Scientific study* has shown that it can help to promote thermogenesis in the body. This assists with the increased burning of fats and calories by using them as fuel to cause the temperature to rise.
However, the advantages of including ß-phenylethylamine HCl into your weight loss program don’t stop there. This ingredient, which is also known as PEA, is recognized through clinical research** to provide alertness and mood support. These features are both are critical to maintaining motivation throughout the length of the diet.
In fact, research*** has shown that this ingredient’s mood support is adequately strong enough that it can help to counteract depression. As it is easy to become discouraged while dieting, this substance can provide vital support to ensuring that weight loss goals are reached.
When combined with daily exercise, research**** has also shown that the use of ß-phenylethylamine HCl can work as an intense fat burner to considerably accelerate weight loss and can encourage a more successful diet overall.
* Jay R Hoffman, Jie Kang, Nicholas A Ratamess, Stefanie L Rashti, Christopher P Tranchina and Avery D Faigenbaum. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. “Thermogenic effect of an acute ingestion of a weight loss supplement”. Volume 6, Number 1 (2009), 1, DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-6-1.
** Sabelli HC, Fawcett J, Gusovsky F, Javaid JI, Wynn P, Edwards J, Jeffriess H, Kravitz H. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. “Clinical studies on the phenylethylamine hypothesis of affective disorder: urine and blood phenylacetic acid and phenylalanine dietary supplements”. 1986 Feb;47(2):66-70.
**** Sabelli H, Fink P, Fawcett J, Tom C. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. “Sustained antidepressant effect of PEA replacement”. 1996;8:168-171.
**** Luciana Grazziotin Rossato, Vera Marisa Costa, Renata Pereira Limberger, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Fernando Remião. Food and Chemical Toxicology. “Synephrine: From trace concentrations to massive consumption in weight-loss”. Volume 49, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 8–16.
Forskolin is a natural substance that is found in high quality over the counter weight loss pills such as 3G BURN.
This ingredient is derived from a plant that is known as Coleus Forskohlii, which has been used for centuries in traditional forms of medicine for several different medicinal reasons. In the case of these non-prescription weight loss pills, it is because it is known to be a helpful fat burner in the effort to reduce body fat.
Scientific study* has shown that forskolin has a direct impact on the body’s cyclic AMP and that this impact helps to promote muscle growth. While this is appealing to bodybuilders and athletes, it is also very helpful to dieters. This is because muscles are natural fat and calorie burners. Therefore, by increasing the size of the body’s muscles, it naturally allows more calories and fats to be burned every day.
Other changes that clinical research** has noted as a result of the use of forskolin are in the composition of the body. When compared to placebo groups, those taking this ingredient experience a notably lower body fat percentage (BF%) and body fat mass (FM).
In terms of actual fat burning, scientific research*** has indicated that when this substance is being taken by dieters, it helps the body to increase the speed by which it burns fats. This effect is maximized when it is combined with cardio exercises on a regular basis.
When combined with exercises recommended by a doctor for the individual dieter’s unique fitness level, the increased fat burning and the promotion of muscle growth has been shown in clinical study to have a considerable impact on a dieter’s ability to lose weight more quickly and easily.
* Seamon KB, Daly JW. Journal of Cyclic Nucleotide Research. “Forskolin: a unique diterpene activator of cyclic AMP-generating systems”. 1981, 7(4):201-224.
** Michael P. Godard, Brad A. Johnson, Scott R. Richmond. Obesity Research. “Body Composition and Hormonal Adaptations Associated with Forskolin Consumption in Overweight and Obese Men”. Volume 13, Issue 8, pages 1335–1343, August 2005.
*** Tepperman HM, Dewitt J, Tepperman J. The Journal of Nutrition. “Effect of a high fat diet on rat adipocyte lipolysis: responses to epinephrine, forskolin, methylisobutylxanthine, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, insulin and nicotinic acid”. 1986 Oct;116(10):1984-91.
**** Shari Lieberman. Alternative and Complementary Therapies. “A New Potential Weapon for Fighting Obesity: Forskolin—the Active Diterpene in Coleus”. December 2004, 10(6): 330-333.
NeOpuntia® (Opuntia Ficus-Indica)
NeOpuntia® is a well-researched weight management pill ingredient extracted from a plant called opuntia ficus-indica. After having been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years, the plant underwent a great deal of scientific and clinical scrutiny for a series of medical purposes such as weight loss.
The findings have made it one of the most well recognized fat binder ingredients in high-quality supplements. For instance, one large study* followed patients suffering from metabolic syndrome. When they used NeOpuntia, the participants saw measurable improvements in their cardiovascular risk related blood lipid parameters.
More research**, this time in the form of a randomized clinical trial analysis examined the results of several studies. This revealed a link between opuntia ficus-indica supplementation and significant reductions in total blood pressure, cholesterol and body fat percentage levels. Though this analysis did underscore the fact that additional study would be required before the ingredient could be fully understood, it revealed a strong link between using this substance and experiencing a spectrum of support to lower health risks, including the reduction of body fat percentage.
Furthermore, a third study*** illustrated the way that using this ingredient can cause the level of fat excretion in the body to rise. Research participants consisting of healthy adults issued more dietary fat from their waste than another group of similar adults who were not given the supplement. This suggested a reduced dietary fat absorption when opuntia ficus-indica was used.
* Linarès, E., Thimonier, C., Degre, M. “The effect of neopuntia® on blood lipid parameters—Risk factors for the metabolic syndrome”. Advances in Therapy. September/October 2007, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 1115-1125. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02877717
** Onakpoya, I.J., O’Sullivan, J., Heneghan C.J. “The effect of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials”. Nutrition. 2015 May;31(5):640-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25837206
*** Uebelhack, R., Busch, R., Alt, F., Beah, Z-M., Chong, P-W., “Effects of Fiber on the Excretion of Dietary Fat in Healthy Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Investigation”. Current Therapeutic Research. Volume 76, December 2014, Pages 39–44. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0011393X14000034
Organic Matcha Green Tea Leaf Powder
Organic Matcha Green Tea Leaf Powder is a powerful ingredient that is included in some of the most popular and well-respected quality supplements. The reason has to do with the wealth of research that has been conducted on this substance and the tremendous number of effects associated with its use.
This helps to explain why it can be found in some of the top weight management products available to consumers in the United States.
A respected study* revealed that when research participants used organic matcha green tea leaf powder supplements, those individuals experienced significant rises in their 24-hour energy expenditure. At the same time, those individuals who took the supplements also maintained higher adrenaline (norepinephrine) levels than the study participants who were given a placebo.
Another meaningful study** involved the use of green tea leaf supplements to research participants who subsequently experienced improvements to fat blocking (lipase inhibition) within the gastric and pancreatic systems. The dietary fat was blocked from being absorbed by the body through the reduction of the secretion of an important enzyme critical to fat digestion. In that same study, there was also a measurable increase in the study participants’ thermogenesis. This means that the supplements increased the participants’ body temperature, requiring more calories and/or body fat to be used to fuel that additional heat.
Therefore, studies suggest that this ingredient not only reduces the body’s absorption of dietary fats but also increases its rate of calorie and fat burning overall.
* Abdul G Dulloo, Claudette Duret, Dorothée Rohrer, Lucien Girardier, Nouri Mensi, Marc Fathi, Philippe Chantre, and Jacques Vandermander. “Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans”. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. December 1999. Volume 70, Issue 6, pages 1040-1045. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/70/6/1040.short
** P. Chantre, D. Lairon. “Recent findings of green tea extract AR25 (Exolise) and its activity for the treatment of obesity”. Phytomedicine. 2002 Volume 9, Issue 1, pages 3-8.
Theobromine is an ingredient seen in weight management pills due to the research supporting its effects. This substance used to be known as xantheose and is a bitter alkaloid that is extracted from the cacao plant – the same plant used for making chocolate. In fact, a certain amount of this ingredient is actually found in the chocolate we eat, in addition to other foods such as tea leaves and kola nut.
Despite what the name suggests, theobromine does not contain bromine. Instead, it is considered to be a xanthine alkaloid. On a chemical level, it isn’t entirely unlike caffeine and it does have a certain stimulant effect.
It is now well known for being used to help support dieters who are following a healthy and calorie controlled diet as well as a regular fitness appropriate activity level.
Of the body of research supporting the use of theobromine, one study* revealed that when taking this substance as a supplement, it can provide energy boosting and appetite suppression effects somewhat like caffeine. That said, this research showed that, when compared to the use of a placebo, this ingredient can be effectively combined with caffeine in order to improve the effects of that stimulant.
* Mumford, G., Evans, S., Kaminski, B., Preston, K, Sannerud, C., Silverman, K., Griffiths, R. “Discriminative stimulus and subjective effects of theobromine and caffeine in humans”. Phychopharmacology. June 1994. Volume 115, Issue 1-2, pages 1-8. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02244744#page-1
Acetyl-L-Carnitine HCl (ALCAR)
Acetyl-L-Carnitine HCl (ALCAR) is a substance sometimes selected for high-quality diet pill formulations because of the research conducted on it to better understand its benefits. It has a number of different effects on the body, many of which may be advantageous to people following a healthy diet and exercise program.
Acetyl-L-Carnitine HCl has undergone a substantial amount of research over the years. Many studies have pointed to its impact on the metabolism and the way in which it improves its rate. Other effects observed through the use of this substance include improved control over the symptoms of depression, enhanced brain function, and even having an antioxidant effect.
Within the body of research on this ingredient, one study* showed that ALCAR not only has an impact within the human body but that it continues to work over several hours after the supplement is administered. Participants given this substance experienced a gradual increase in its effects, to the point that they were still measurable 12 hours later. This is very helpful in making sure that the effects don’t wear away too quickly and that a user can rely on them.
When it comes to a faster metabolism, this can indicate that the body’s calorie and fat burning will speed up and remain at the higher level for a substantial period of time.
* Marzo, A., Arrigoni Martelli, E., Urso, R., Rocchetti, M., Rizza, V., Kelly, J.G. “Metabolism and disposition of intravenously administered acetyl-L-carnitine in healthy volunteers”. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1989. Volume 37, Issue 1, pages 59-63. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2591464
L-Tyrosine is a well-known ingredient that is occasionally selected for fitness and weight management supplements as a result of the positive outcomes it has received during clinical trials. Many dieters look specifically for products containing this substance due to the evidence describing its effects.
The substance itself is among the building blocks that make up protein. It is actually a substance the body can produce on its own from phenylalanine, an amino acid. That said, when it is supplemented, its effects can be magnified over what the body can accomplish on its own. Other sources of L-Tyrosine include oats, dairy, wheat, beans, nuts, fish, meats, and eggs.
One study* examining L-Tyrosine showed that when it is used in combination with other food-based ingredients (for instance, green tea and/or caffeine), the researchers determined that the individual’s thermogenic response was elevated. This means that the study participants’ temperatures rose, causing more calories from food and/or stored body fat to be used as a fuel for that additional heat.
Another study** revealed that when bioactive foods are consumed along with L-Tyrosine, thermogenesis increases over a significant amount of time. In this particular case, the research continued for 8 weeks. It was double-blind, placebo-controlled research involving the participation of subjects with obesity. The increased thermogenesis was measured over a period of 4 hours on average, with a rise of about 90 kj more than the placebo group.
* Belza, A., Toubro, S., and Astrup, A. “The effect of caffeine, green tea, and tyrosine on thermogenesis and energy intake”. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009, September. Volume 63, pages 57-64. http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v63/n1/abs/1602901a.html
** Belza, A., Frandsen, E., and Kondrup, J. “Body fat loss achieved by stimulation of thermogenesis by a combination of bioactive food ingredients: a placebo-controlled, double-blind 8-week intervention in obese subjects”. International Journal of Obesity. 2007. Volume 31, pages 121-130. http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v31/n1/abs/0803351a.html
Green Coffee Bean Extract
Green coffee bean extract is an extremely hot ingredient at the moment due to the combination of positive attention it has received from respected members of the medical community as well as some very promising early research.
This natural ingredient has been the focus of a broad spectrum of preliminary studies in order to be able to ensure its safe use and to know exactly what effects it has in the body. Many people believe that we have only scratched the surface of what green coffee bean extract can do.
One of the studies* that has been considered to be one of the most promising when it comes to supporting dieters is one published in the BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine journal which showed that it may offer a barrier against fat accumulation and weight gain. The reason is that it is believed to help the body to reduce the amount of dietary fat it absorbs. Moreover, it may reduce the liver’s metabolism of dietary fats filtered through it.
Another study** showed that green coffee bean extract supplementation helped dieters to reduce their overall body mass, weight and body fat percentage. This, despite the fact that the dieters had not made any significant changes to their eating habits. A decrease in heart rate was also measured, though that was more minor than the other observed effects. This study involved the participation of six subjects whose goal was to reduce their weight from the pre-obesity category and to bring it into the normal range. They were able to meet this goal. Prior animal studies had shown similar results to this preliminary experiment.
* Hiroshi Shimoda, Emi Seki and Michio Aitani. “Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice”. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2006. Volume 6, Issue 9. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/6/9
** Joe A Vinson, Bryan R Burnham, and Mysore V Nagendran. “Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects.” Journal of Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrom, and Obesity. 2012. Volume 5, pages 21-27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3267522/
CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid)
CLA, which stands for conjugated linoleic acid, is a natural ingredient that is sometimes used in high-quality weight management pills, fitness supplements and other products within the wellness industry. This substance can be obtained through a range of different sources, among which the most common are dairy and meat products.
Even when taken all by itself, CLA can provide a number of different health benefits and many people take it on its own as a supplement to improve overall wellness. That said, it can also be combined with a number of other substances in order to offer its users a more specific type of effect within the body including support for weight management.
One randomized, controlled trial study* on conjugated linoleic acid was conducted by teams of researchers from several scientific organizations in order to better understand the types of benefits it can provide. They determined that there was potential for weight loss, bodybuilding, and other similar areas. This research involved the participation of middle-aged men suffering from both obesity and metabolic syndrome. They used CLA supplements for a full month and, through this supplementation, they were able to lower their abdominal fat levels without placing these individuals at any further cardiovascular risk.
* Risérus, U., Berglund, L., Vessby, B. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders “Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced abdominal adipose tissue in obese middle-aged men with signs of the metabolic syndrome: a randomised controlled trial”. 2001, Volume 25, Issue 8: pages1129-1135. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1147749
Eleuthero (Siberian Ginseng) Root Extract
Eleuthero root extract, also known as Siberian ginseng or as Ciwujia, is a natural ingredient used in several types of wellness supplement, particularly in quality weight management pills. The substance is obtained from a small woody shrub that is found naturally in Eastern and Northeastern Asia.
Parts of this plant have been used for centuries in natural medicine. However, as modern medicine has taken the opportunity to study Eleuthero root extract, doctors have obtained a better understanding of just how it works and what it can do for its users. Many people use this substance as a stand-alone supplement for reasons ranging from common cold prevention to the reduction of symptoms from common illnesses. That said, it can also support those working to lose weight.
It’s important to note that Siberian Ginseng and Panax (American) Ginseng are not the same plant. They are not related and cannot be used interchangeably.
Eleuthero root extract works by promoting alertness and may boost in physical exercise performance. Dieters can benefit from that type of effect by getting more out of the workouts they complete in order to burn fat.
Reputable research supports the use of this ingredient for this purpose. For example, one study* illustrated the way in which this ingredient can function as an “adaptogen.” This means that it functions within the body to boost stress resistance and enhances vitality. In this way, it doesn’t just make sure people get the most out of their workouts, but it also ensures that it will have the smallest possible stress impact.
* Drew, A. Current Therapeutics. “Siberian ginseng”. Vol. 43, No. 11, Nov 2002: Volume 62, Issue 3. http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=525437824314137;res=IELHEA
Xanthinol Nicotinate is a natural ingredient that is included in certain high-quality weight management supplements due to the positive results it has seen in scientific research. The medical community knows this substance as xanthinol niacinate. It is used as a type of vasodilator. This means that it works within the body by opening up the blood vessels, making it easier for blood to flow through them unrestricted.
Xanthinol Nicotinate is no stranger to scientific study. It has been looked into by many reputable organizations in order to help discover just why it works the way it does and to understand what dosage is safest and most effective at the same time.
In one German study* on this ingredient, it was examined for its effect on lipid reduction. They researched the impact of Xanthinol Nicotinate supplementation on patients who suffered from a condition called hyperlipoproteinemias. This condition occurs when the patient’s body is not able to properly break down lipids – that is, fats such as cholesterol and triglycerides. Those patients require medical assistance to be able to break down some of the fats they consume in their foods. In this research, the lipid-lowering effects of the ingredient looked very promising.
* Machalke, K., Djaja, S., and Richter, E. Therapie Die Gegenwart. “Lipid-lowering effect of etofibrate, bezafibrate and xanthinol nicotinate in patients with hyperlipoproteinemias”. Volume 121, Issue 5, May 1982. Pages 301-311. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6953613
Cnidium Monnieri Fruit Powder
Cnidium Monnieri Fruit Powder is a natural ingredient used in medicinal supplements. It is also often known as Monier’s snow parsley. This ingredient is obtained from a plant within the cnidium genus, a flowering plant in the parsley family.
While it has been used in traditional Chinese medicine, more recent research has helped it to gain greater acceptance in conventional western medicine, as well. The benefits of this ingredient are believed to come from the coumarins within it. Coumarins are a form of phytochemical occurring naturally within certain plants. It is colorless, crystalline and has a notable fragrance that is often compared to that of vanilla.
Equally, this type of ingredient is also known to produce a number of different types of physiological effects within the body. There are three different coumarins found within the Cnidium Monnieri Fruit Powder often used in high-quality weight management supplements. These coumarins are imperatorin, xanthotoxol, and osthol.
One study* determined that Cnidium Monnieri Fruit Powder contains chromone glycosides which produce anti-adipogenic effects. What this means is that they may help the body to avoid gaining fat. The research results suggested that using this substance can significantly inhibit adipocyte differentiation. That effect was measured by the amount of 3T3-L1 cell fat accumulation which had notably reduced.
* Seon Beom Kima, Jong Hoon Ahna, Sang-Bae Hana, Bang Yeon Hwanga, Sung Yeon Kimb, Mi Kyeong Leea. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. “Anti-adipogenic chromone glycosides from Cnidium monnieri fruits in 3T3-L1 cells”. Volume 22, Issue 19, 1 October 2012, pages 6267–6271. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22932311
Throughout the careful and lengthy development process for FENFAST 375, the Intechra Health team quickly realized that L-Phenylalanine, an essential amino acid, should be included within its proprietary formula. Significant research indicated that this substance would be a solid complement to the other ingredients comprising these non-prescription tablets.
L-Phenylalanine is well known and recognized throughout the over the counter diet pill industry. Research has shown both safe and effective use when investigating its potential weight loss benefits. Studies have indicated that it works in the body through the production of cholecystokinin (CCK).
A scientific study* determined that the CCK produced in the bodies of the research’s human subjects following L-Phenylalanine supplementation effectively reduced their food intake. This helped the researchers to show that this ingredient can play a psychological role in controlling eating.
A later study** conducted on mice went on to discover more information about just why the body responded in that way to the presence of CCK. It determined that the CCK synergized acutely with amylin. Even lean mice reduced their food intake as a result. The researchers went on to suggest that this was meaningful evidence that indicated that studying potential therapeutic uses of CCK-based combinations for obesity patients.
That same research** also infused rats with a combination of amylin, leptin and CCK for 14 days and found that those rates lost a significant amount more body weight due to food intake inhibition than the rats with an amylin and leptin treatment alone.
When combined with a healthy, calorie-restricted diet, this type of effect could prove quite helpful to dieters. If a dieter is already naturally eating less, hunger pangs from dietary changes and calorie reduction may not pose as much of a challenge to them.
* A B Ballinger and M L Clark. “l-Phenylalanine releases cholecystokinin (CCK) and is associated with reduced food intake in humans: Evidence for a physiological role of CCK in control of eating”. Metabolism. June 1994:Volume 43, Issue 6, Pages 735–738.
** Trevaskis , James L., Victoria F.Turek, et al. “Multi-hormonal weight loss combinations in diet-induced obese rats: Therapeutic potential of cholecystokinin?” Physiology and Behavior. May 2010; Volume 100, Issue 2, Pages 187-195.